Confirmation Bias

One liner: New information will only strengthen point of views one already had.

Example: Two opposing groups. Two fabricated texts strengthening each group's ideas. Both groups are required to read both texts. Both groups come out more sure about what they already thought before. From:

Mechanism
  • Pattern Recognition. You are more likely to find for what you already are looking for. It is basically pattern recognition.
  • Ego. I am incentived to grab confirming information to protect my ego.
  • Group. In case of controversial topics you will be punished if you break from your group thinking.
  • Storytelling. People have faulty memory and have a need to share stories. They want to describe it to a friend or write about it. If they don't remember all of the pieces having thesis in mind they will reconstruct the facts.
  • It explains why you are likely to believe and vote how your parents voted
Counteracting Actions
  • Always hedge against your knowledge.
  • Remember that your memory is very faulty and will skew the memories to help stories centered around yourself.
More

Observer-expectancy is a similar effect. If you are looking for something to happen you might invented out of thin air (especially applying to scientific research and

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